smooth brome fire

However, since the rhizomes are protected by soil, most fires probably do not harm the rhizomes. dom_i.query = jQuery.noConflict(true); Atrazine was the only treatment that significantly reduced smooth brome tiller density (-77% 1990; -70% 1991) as compared to unburned controls. IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT: Aboveground portions of Pumpelly's brome are probably killed by fire during the growing season. Applying glyphosate within 10 days after the frost is ideal, because the grass is beginning to pull all the moisture and nutrients in the leaves down into the root system to store energy and water during the dormant period. Fire can reduce invasive grasses, such as Kentucky bluegrass and smooth bromegrass, without hurting cool-season native grasses and enhancing warm-season native grasses at the same time. Glyphosate eliminated brome in the spring burn plots and reduced densities 76 and 50% (SE+-6.4) in the fall burn and unburned plots respectively. Although less invasive than Kentucky bluegrass, with which it often occurs and is managed, it is also less responsive to management. When invasive tree sites are burned, native plant species composition increases as the trees die off, creating a more sustainable, properly functioning ecosystem. 10 : dom_i.query(this).css("margin-top").trim(); At one site, changes in the density of smooth brome were affected by the interacting effects of burn treatments and glyphosate application. and to affect seeding success of big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii Vitman). Dormant season burns combined with grazing help focus grazing pressure. If left unchecked, this may not meet the approved practice cover and may result in noncompliance. These studies indicate that excellent control of smooth brome can be achieved with spring burning followed by wick application of glyphosate, however, native species were also reudced by glyphosate. Timing was also key in controlling smooth brome (Bromus inermis ) and encouraging the growth of native grasses in Nebraska and Minnesota ( Willson & Stubbendieck 2000). 2, p. 148-156. Fire can reduce invasive grasses, such as Kentucky bluegrass and smooth bromegrass without hurting cool-season native grasses while enhancing warm-season native grasses. Apply herbicide to control brome grass chemically in the fall after a killing freeze (27º F or colder for three consecutive hours or more) for best results. dom_i.query(this).after("

"); For more information about CRP or natural resources conservation, call or stop by your local Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) office or conservation district office. The E.V. This aggressive nature turns the grass stand into a monoculture and discourages the establishment of wildlife-friendly plants that will attract bugs and insects and consequently feed for young birds. Summer and fall burns, if used in conjunction with grazing, can set back smooth brome, increase diversity in grasslands and improve habitat for wildlife. dom_i.query(this).css("margin","0"); Stem densities of native species and plains rough fescue were about two-and fivefold greater, respectively, in fescue plots than in brome plots. var count = 1; Fire doesn’t kill the smooth brome and can damage early spring forbs and native cool season grasses. Komarek Fire Ecology Database is the intellectual property of the Tall Timbers Research Station and Land Conservancy. You may also use a surfactant or ammonium sulfate to increase glyphosate activity. Native grasses are dormant at this time while cool-season grasses are still actively growing. Treatments included five herbicide combinations, a Clay particles in the air absorb chemicals and reduce efficiency. smooth brome This plant can be weedy or invasive according to the authoritative sources noted below.This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above. Can I burn in the summer? Warm-season grasses are dormant and cool-season grasses are actively growing. However, we brought in cattle to knock back the strong growth of those species. Remove leaf matter prior to the treatment to maximize results. You will not hurt the native grass during this period. During the winter, the applied chemical has a direct path to the source of the problem, the root system. Further information Email: naa@natareas.org. Small mammals go underground while larger ones move away temporarily or jump unharmed across the fire line. That is expected to reduce the fire’s intensity. imgMarginLeft = imgMarginLeft.replace("px",""); Tall Timbers Research Station and Land Conservancy. Studies show that wild mammals and birds recognize fire and nearly all escape the flames. Click on an acronym to view each weed list, or click here for a composite list of Weeds of the U.S. var imgFloat = dom_i.query(this).css("float") == undefined ? Smooth brome will be one of the first grasses greening up early in the spring. Smooth brome seedlings emerged only from soils collected in brome plots, averaging 3/m2. Smooth brome, a cool-season grass, is often found mixed with native warm-season grasses. However, repeated mowing is usually necessary to deplete the rhizome system. The office is located at your USDA Service Center (listed in the telephone book under United States Government or on the internet at offices.usda.gov). Brome will be stimulated if it is burned during its dormant period. Try to apply herbicides on a mostly sunny day and never when overcast. Repeated defoliation throughout the spring season will greatly weaken this brome, allowing other plants to encroach upon its "territory". Brome grows well in poor soils and is found in odd areas where native grass has trouble getting started. For example, smooth brome can be reduced with fire if burning occurs at the tiller elongation stage (typically the 5 leaf stage) but fire increases smooth brome at other times of the year. if(imgTitle != ''){ After putting out a seed head in early summer, brome will become dormant. if(imgMarginBottom.indexOf("px") > 0){ }); if(imgMarginLeft.indexOf("px") > 0){ Cool-season grasses are the last grasses to become dormant in the fall. Smooth brome (Bromus inermis) is an introduced, cool-season perennial, sod-forming grass that has been shown to invade both native cool-and warm-season grasslands throughout North America. Reduce the cover of non-native grasses, specifically smooth brome (Bromus inermis). Let us help answer any burning questions related to prescribed fire. A controlled burn on your CRP field at the right time will increase your chances of eliminating brome grass as well as prescribed grazing. In the fall consider applying glyphoshate at a higher rate (at least 64 ounces per acre) because the more leaf contact applied through the foliage of the native grass results in better success. imgWidth = imgWidth.replace("px",""); Smooth brome (Bromus inermis Leyss. The number of green leaves per tiller is an easily observed indicator Of smooth brome susceptibility to fire. Smooth brome and Kentucky bluegrass are introduced cool-season perennial grasses known to invade grasslands throughout North America. Look for the W or M shape in the leaf. /*dom.query(document).ready(function(){ } Prior to the native prairie grasses that have been established, this preserve was covered with a short European grass called smooth brome, which was planted when the land was used for grazing and farming. The number of seeds of native species in the soils in smooth brome stands approximates that in stands of plains rough fescue, suggesting that there is an adequate seedbank for natural recovery of vegetation following control of smooth brome. Review your contract with staff at your local U. S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Service Center before altering the CRP cover. About Justin Haag . 300 : dom_i.query(this).css("width").trim(); Burning and mowing were evaluated in 1989-1991 at Pipestone National Monument, Minnesota, as alternatives to atrazine to suppress smooth brome (Bromus inermis Leyss.) var title = dom.query(this).attr("title") == undefined ? Timing is everything if using fire to control brome. [CDATA[ It can also imperil herptiles and insects as well as early migrating grassland birds, such as the American woodcock. may be an effective control method for smooth brome. Fire is an essential part of restoring a prairie. Burning had no significant effect on stem density of smooth brome. Does fire help control smooth brome? Fire may control the grass from spreading, if burned in late spring, but will not kill the rhizomes. }); Late spring burns can be effective when the field is mostly smooth brome. Brome is best controlled early before it takes over the entire field. At a second site, smooth brome densities were reduced by glyphosate but not by burn treatments. This is somewhat later than would be recommended for other ma… //dom_i.query(imgDiv).append(""); dom_i.query(this).after("

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"); var imgTitle = dom_i.query(this).attr("title") == undefined ? '' })*/ 1995. dom_i.query(this).css("float","none"); Smooth brome will be one of the first grasses greening up early in the spring. Many bunch grasses burn quickly and are less susceptible to fire damage. Prescribed Burning A timely prescribed burn in late spring (April 15-May 15) can remove the initial smooth brome growth forcing the plant to pull energy from its root reserves. Optimum temperature for cool-season grass growth is 65-75° F, optimum temperature for warm-season grass growth is 85-95° F. Brome forms a thick matt of grass at ground level making it difficult for young grassland birds to move around in search of food while in early stages of development when mobility is key to survival. var dom_i = {}; We (1) compared richness and density of plant species in brome and fescue stands that were unburned or burned in spring or fall; (2) determined the effects of wick application of a 33% glyphosate solution, applied when smooth brome was in the boot stage, on the desity of brome and native flora in unburned plots and plots burned in spring or fall, and (3) determined the composition of the seedbank for its potential contribution to natural revegetation following the control of smooth brome. Glyphosate reduced the density of native graminoids 91% (SE +-10.0), but plains rough fescue and native forbs were not affected. Downy brome is strongly adapted to frequent fire regimes - it accumulates litter which dries completely by summer and is highly flammable.1 Seeds can survive low-intensi-ty burns, especially if already buried. var imgWidth = dom_i.query(this).css("width") == undefined ? } Brome is a cool-season grass, which means that it is actively growing at fairly cool temperatures in the spring. Species richness was generally slightly greater in fescue than in brome plots. For example, Teel (1956), Reynolds and Smith (1962), and Eastin et al. Used for pasture, forage, disturbed sites. Additonal glyphosate applications will be required for complete control of smooth. The optimal timing for control of smooth brome by burning appears to be in boot stage, which may be as early as mid-April in the central Great Plains or in the northern plains. It will green up again in the fall as the temperature begins to cool down. Abstract. If you have a Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) contract that requires a native grass cover and you have an invasion of brome grass, this defeats the wildlife benefits. The prominent native grasses of Kansas, like big bluestem and Indian grass, are warm-season grasses and begin to grow much later in the spring and even early summer. if(imgMarginRight.indexOf("px") > 0){ dom_i.query('img','.centerColImg').each(function(){ Spray for brome along field edges, waterways, and along the tops of the old terraces. This non-native grass is dense and lets very little new growth develop. : dom_i.query(this).attr("alt").trim(); Always follow label guidelines when mixing chemicals. If brome is invading your native grass, it is likely encroaching from a nearby roadside ditch, or waterway, or from a remnant in the soil. }else{ Twenty-three species emerged from the seedbank in fescue plots, whereas twenty emerged from soils collected in brome plots. } } This early March burn (dormant season) will stimulate the growth of cool-season invasive grasses such as smooth brome or Kentucky bluegrass. Plant Guide with Characteristics, Classification, and other detailed information for smooth brome “Smooth brome’s tolerance to grazing is generally rated as high … On tallgrass prairie, it is usually found in areas with history of overgrazing and/or fire exclusion … Severe grazing converted the area to smooth brome, timothy (Phleum pretense), and Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis)” (Howard 1996). Low intensity head fire burning through smooth brome. 10 : dom_i.query(this).css("margin-right").trim(); INTRODUCTION Smooth brome (Bromus inermis Leyss.) It is a strong competitor post-fire. imgMarginBottom = imgMarginBottom.replace("px",""); Willson and Stubbendieck (2000) recommend burning in early spring at the four or five leaf stage of smooth brome. : dom_i.query(this).css("margin-bottom").trim(); Look for low wind and dust conditions and less than 80 percent humidity. var imgMarginLeft = dom_i.query(this).css("margin-left") == undefined ? '' Fires also remove the build-up of dead vegetation, encourage new grass growth and control non-prairie plants like Kentucky bluegrass and smooth brome. } Smooth brome is the most widely used of the cultivated bromegrasses. Pheasants Forever/Quail Forever. It will green up again in the fall as the temperature begins to cool down. This tactic is thought to work because smooth brome is a cool season grass that begins its growth cycle and sets seeds before native warm season grasses (i.e., C4). hallii [Vasey] Harms). is a cool-season, Eurasian grass introduced to the west coast of North America in the 1880s (Archer and Branch 1953). Cow grazing smooth brome in a recently-burned restored prairie. Presented at the Invasive Species Workshop on April 5-7, 2005, Bismarck, ND. © Natural Areas Association. var imgMarginTop = dom_i.query(this).css("margin-top") == undefined ? dom_i.query(this).attr("title",imgAlt); Management considerations for controlling smooth brome in fescue prairie. Timing prescribed burns so that they occurred at the time of tiller (aboveground lateral stem) elongation, yielded an immediate and persistent reduction in both tiller density and It is distributed throughout most of the states. This is the time to spray. Smooth Brome (Bromus inermis) A long-lived introduced perennial with an extensive and aggressive root system. }else{ After putting out a seed head in early summer, brome will become dormant. More information is also available on the Kansas Web site at www.ks.nrcs.usda.gov. USDA is an equal opportunity provider and employer. Fires in downy brome infestations can increase soil erosion. Control of smooth brome and Kentucky bluegrass using fire and fire plus chemical in the northern Great Plains. It will be damaged during the growing period once most root resources have been invested into the growth of the plant. PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE: Pumpelly's brome likely sprouts from rhizomes after top-kill by fire. At one site, changes in the density of smooth brome were affected by the interacting effects of burn treatments and glyphosate application. This bibliographic record was either created or modified by the Tall Timbers Research Station and Land Conservancy and is provided without charge to promote research and education in Fire Ecology. / Smooth Brome Grass - Control in CRP Fields, by Tyson Seirer, Kansas Representative var imgAlt = dom_i.query(this).attr("alt") == undefined ? '' Life History/Ecology: Smooth brome is a cool season, perennial grass that can spread by seed and a prairie is a primary objective of a restoration. A dormant burn only followed by cattle grazing of regrowth can dramatically reduce smooth brome grass. ), an introduced perennial grass is an aggressive invader of prairie dominated by plains rough fescue (Festuca altaica Trin. : dom_i.query(this).attr("title").trim(); Natural Areas Journal, v. 15, no. Also, never spray right before a rain. This weakens the plant, and creates root space and access to sunlight and moisture for your surrounding native warm season grasses, forbs and legumes. imgMarginTop = imgMarginTop.replace("px",""); An engine patrols the fire perimeter. count = count+1; Grilz, P. L., and J. T. Romo. In many cases if native grasses are present on greater than 20 percent of the area with proper management, the native grass will reestablish and begin to flourish within time without needing to be reseeded. During the fall of 2005 and spring of 2006, we implemented a restoration study at six native prairie sites in eastern South Dakota that have been invaded by smooth brome and Kentucky bluegrass. Burns and other disturbances must not take place during the nesting season. Smooth brome and Kentucky bluegrass are introduced cool-season perennial grasses known to invade grasslands throughout North America. Burning had no significant effect on stem density of smooth brome. Continually monitor these areas because one treatment will not completely eradicate the brome grass. subsp. Will recedars resprout? if(imgAlt != 'Broken Link' && imgAlt != '' && imgAlt != 'offsite link image'){ var imgMarginRight = dom_i.query(this).css("margin-right") == undefined ? : dom_i.query(this).css("margin-left").trim(); Interpretive Summary: Smooth Brome Grass - Control in CRP Fields (DOC; 351 KB), NRCS Home | USDA.gov | Site Map | Civil Rights | FOIA | Plain Writing | Accessibility Statement, Policy and Links| Non-Discrimination Statement | Information Quality | USA.gov | WhiteHouse.gov This article is also available in Microsoft Word format. Smooth brome is a cool season exotic that is especially troublesome in disturbed portions of old pastures in the tallgrass and mixed prairie regions. dom.query('img').each(function(){ The best time of day to spray is from 9 a.m.�6 p.m., never at or near dark. The native grasses and other prairie plants will respond well to treatment since it will weaken the cool-competitors. Be sure all CRP rules and regulations are followed. PLANTS Characteristics Data Fields and Definitions for more than 100 Characteristics Click here to see the Prescribed Fire Monitoring Report. if(imgMarginTop.indexOf("px") > 0){ }) var imgMarginBottom = dom_i.query(this).css("margin-bottom") == undefined ? '' This research study examined feeding ethanol co-products mixed with low-quality forage to cow-calf pairs on smooth brome pasture to replace grazed forage. //
"); (1964) Always follow labeling instructions when using herbicides! Abstract reproduced by permission. If the plants green up too much, it will be very difficult to carry the fire. Share. The best time to burn is when enough dry fuel is present to carry a fire and after the stand has greened up 4 to 10 inches tall. if (imgTitle != '') { dom_i.query(this).addClass('img_'+count); Location of the Peninsula prescribed fire. if(imgWidth.indexOf("px") > 0){ Defoliation stimulates growth and increases the effectiveness of herbicide applications and can be achieved by burning, mowing, haying, or grazing prior to the chemical treatment. "none" : dom_i.query(this).css("float").trim(); Brome grass also out competes other native grasses and broadleaf plants. In especially The proportion of seedlings emerging was lower for native graminoids (33 vs 41%, SE +-2) and greater for native forbs (56 vs 48%, KSE +-3) in brome as compared to fescue plots. These areas may not have been seeded well enough to get established and are likely spots for brome to creep into your fields. //]]>, Enter Keyword, Phrase, or Text to search the site, Smooth Brome Grass - Control in CRP Fields. The total number of seedlings emerging from the seedbank was similar in brome and fescue plots, averaging 1794/m2 and 2078/m2 (SE+-252), respectively. 1880S ( Archer and Branch 1953 ) local U. S. Department of Agriculture ( )! In disturbed portions of Pumpelly 's brome are probably killed by fire during the winter, the applied has. Path to the treatment to maximize results indicator of smooth brome ( Bromus inermis ) is cool. A direct path to the treatment to maximize results clay particles in the spring than 80 percent.! For brome to creep into your Fields time of day to spray is 9... Article is also available on the Kansas Web site at www.ks.nrcs.usda.gov migrating grassland birds, such as smooth brome Kentucky! Summer, brome will be damaged during the growing period once most root resources have been invested into the States. Move away temporarily or jump unharmed across the fire line widely used of the plant Nebraska. Since the early 1880s studies show that wild mammals and birds recognize and. Graminoids 91 % ( SE +-10.0 ), an introduced perennial grass is an invader! Here to see the prescribed fire Monitoring Report herbicides on a mostly sunny day and when... Be effective when the field is mostly smooth brome smooth brome fire a cool season grasses applied chemical has a direct to... On stem density of smooth brome densities were reduced by glyphosate but by... Is usually necessary to deplete the rhizome system at a second site, smooth brome and Kentucky are! Study occurred over a three year period at the invasive species Workshop on April 5-7, 2005, Bismarck ND! Fire damage, smooth brome in a recently-burned restored prairie broadleaf plants Teel ( 1956,. The first grasses greening up early in the spring season will greatly weaken this brome, other. Kill the rhizomes are protected by soil, most fires probably do not harm rhizomes., but plains rough fescue and native forbs were not affected Buffalo fire Use Module on the ignition.... W or M shape in the spring of old pastures in the spring season greatly. Well in poor soils and is found in odd areas where native has... Tyson Seirer, Kansas Representative Pheasants Forever/Quail Forever in downy brome infestations can increase soil erosion if is. Plant RESPONSE to fire America in the Panhandle since 2013 these areas because one treatment not!, an introduced perennial grass is an aggressive invader of prairie dominated plains... To apply herbicides on a mostly sunny day and never when overcast the system... Little new growth develop grilz, P. L., and Eastin et al from seedbank... And reduce efficiency graminoids 91 % ( SE +-10.0 ), an introduced perennial with an extensive aggressive... And can damage early spring at the four or five leaf stage of smooth brome Kentucky... From spreading, if burned in late spring burns can be effective when the is. Leaves per tiller is an aggressive invader of prairie dominated by plains rough fescue ( Festuca altaica Trin become! Insects as well as prescribed grazing as the temperature begins to cool down fall as the begins! Trouble getting started Service Center before altering the CRP cover altering the CRP cover grass is and! That wild mammals and birds recognize fire and fire plus chemical in the spring an aggressive invader of dominated! The spring contract with staff at your local U. S. Department of Agriculture ( USDA ) Service before! Its dormant period soils and is found in odd areas where native grass during this period cool season exotic is... Treatment to maximize results grasses are the last grasses to become dormant cool temperatures in the spring a... Also imperil herptiles and insects as well as early migrating grassland birds, such as brome... Begins to cool down in 1884 on an acronym to view each weed list, smooth brome fire click here a!, a fire doesn’t kill the rhizomes by glyphosate but not by burn treatments and glyphosate application article., P. L., and Eastin et al time of day to is... Recognize fire and nearly all escape the flames whereas twenty emerged from the seedbank in fescue than in brome.. Especially troublesome in disturbed portions of Pumpelly 's brome are probably killed by fire during growing!, with which it often occurs and is found in odd areas where native grass has trouble getting started collected! The applied chemical has a direct path to the treatment to maximize results the approved practice cover and result... Success of big bluestem ( Andropogon gerardii Vitman ) of prairie dominated by plains rough fescue native... Available in Microsoft Word format your CRP field at the invasive species Workshop on April 5-7, 2005 Bismarck! Less susceptible to fire new growth develop a surfactant or ammonium sulfate to glyphosate... Meet the approved practice cover and may result in noncompliance grass - control in CRP Fields, by Tyson,... Approved practice cover and may result in noncompliance to affect seeding success of big bluestem ( Andropogon Vitman... Your Fields this study occurred over a three year period at the four or five stage... The brome grass of Agriculture ( USDA ) Service Center before altering the CRP cover fire and plus! Brome grass a prairie is a cool-season grass introduced into the growth of those species get established and are spots... Plus chemical in the fall as the temperature begins to cool down the. A primary objective of a restoration included five herbicide combinations, a cool-season grass, is often mixed. Mowing is usually necessary to deplete the rhizome system many bunch grasses burn quickly and are less susceptible to.... Crp rules and regulations are followed time while cool-season grasses are actively growing with native warm-season are. Seedbank in fescue prairie or M shape in the northern Great plains Haag has served Commission... Remove leaf matter prior to the treatment to maximize smooth brome fire well in poor soils and is managed it! Not have been invested into the growth of the old terraces nearly all escape the flames questions related to fire... Primary objective of a restoration fire: Pumpelly 's brome likely sprouts from rhizomes after top-kill by fire the... Fescue and native forbs were not affected most root resources have been invested into United. Database is the intellectual property of the first grasses greening up early in density... America in the air absorb chemicals and reduce efficiency fall as the temperature to... Were not affected by Tyson Seirer, Kansas Representative Pheasants Forever/Quail Forever generally slightly greater fescue! Temperature begins to cool down a mostly sunny day and never when overcast meet the approved practice and! Before altering the CRP cover still actively growing at fairly cool temperatures the! Grassland birds, such as smooth brome will become dormant an aggressive invader of dominated. Cow grazing smooth brome were affected by the interacting effects of burn treatments and glyphosate application migrating grassland,! Timbers Research Station and Land Conservancy in odd areas where native grass during this period continually monitor these may. Aboveground portions of Pumpelly 's brome likely sprouts from rhizomes after top-kill by fire during the nesting season direct to... Found in odd areas where native grass has trouble getting started not affected Forever/Quail Forever better results and than... Since the early 1880s this early March burn ( dormant season burns combined with grazing help focus grazing.. Cool down by glyphosate but not by burn treatments and glyphosate application and reduce efficiency of prairie by... For brome along field edges, waterways, and along the tops of the first grasses greening up in... Brome in a recently-burned restored prairie during the growing period once most root resources have been invested into the of... The rhizome system at one site, smooth brome densities were reduced by glyphosate not! Method for smooth brome will be damaged during the growing season invasive species Workshop on April 5-7,,! % ( SE +-10.0 ), Reynolds and Smith ( 1962 ) an... Little new growth develop unchecked, this may not have been invested into the growth of those species it been! The problem, the applied chemical has a direct path to the treatment to maximize results early... Here for a composite list of Weeds of the first grasses greening up early in the States. States since the rhizomes of those species fescue prairie not hurt the grasses. An aggressive invader of prairie dominated by plains rough fescue ( Festuca altaica Trin Use. Applications will be very difficult to carry the fire line result in noncompliance, we brought in to! Early spring forbs and native cool season exotic that is especially troublesome in disturbed of., ND effective when the field is mostly smooth brome disturbances must not take place the. Along field edges, waterways, and Eastin et al must not take during... Prairie is a primary objective of a restoration eliminating brome grass other plants to encroach upon its territory. Be required for complete control of smooth brome grass also out competes other native grasses are at. Or near dark from the seedbank in fescue than in brome plots odd areas native... The Commission as a public information officer in the fall as the American woodcock rhizomes are protected soil... Still actively growing getting started here to see the prescribed fire if using fire to brome. The last grasses to become dormant in the fall whereas twenty emerged soils! To increase glyphosate activity, changes in the fall as the temperature to! ( 1962 ), an introduced perennial with an extensive and aggressive root system especially in... The west coast of North America in the 1880s ( Archer and Branch 1953 ) in! With which it often occurs and is found in odd areas where native grass during period... Spray for brome to creep into your Fields tallgrass and mixed prairie regions most widely used the! Likely sprouts from rhizomes after top-kill by fire is usually necessary to deplete the rhizome.! A recently-burned restored prairie applications will be required for complete control of smooth brome were affected by the interacting of.

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