He also wrote a massive catalog of the holdings of the library of Alexandria, the famous Pinakes. Despite being ruled by a dynasty which was a descendant of the Persian Achaemenid Empire it became hellenized due to the influence of the Greek cities on the Black Sea and its neighboring kingdoms. THE CAMBRIDGE ANCIENT HISTORY, SECOND EDITION, VOLUME VII, PART I: The Hellenistic World, p. 1. Classical city states such as Athens and Ephesus grew and even thrived in this period. It has been noted by Herodotus that after the establishment of the Athenian democracy: ...the Athenians found themselves suddenly a great power. This period also saw the rise of a Hellenistic Judaism, which first developed in the Jewish diaspora of Alexandria and Antioch, and then spread to Judea. This period is called as the ancient Greece Hellenistic because of the Greek empire was spread across the entire Mediterranean and parts of Asia and had reached till India. Settlements such as Ai-Khanoum, on trade routes, allowed Greek culture to mix and spread. Perseus was captured and taken to Rome, the Macedonian kingdom was broken up into four smaller states, and all the Greek cities who aided her, even rhetorically, were punished. The struggles with Rome had left Greece depopulated and demoralised. After the death of Menander (c. 130 BC), the Kingdom appears to have fragmented, with several 'kings' attested contemporaneously in different regions.  Following Droysen, Hellenistic and related terms, e.g. Mithridates was finally defeated by Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (Pompey the Great) in 65 BC. After the fall of the Seleucid dynasty, the Parthians fought frequently against neighbouring Rome in the Roman–Parthian Wars (66 BC – AD 217). The Hellenistic Period 1. More recently, though, it has been seen as a time when artists, writers and thinkers built on the art, literature and philosophy of the 5th and 4th centuries, but introduced many innovations of their own. Eumenes II also constructed the Pergamum Altar with friezes depicting the Gigantomachy on the acropolis of the city. The spread of Christianity throughout the Roman world, followed by the spread of Islam, ushered in the end of Hellenistic philosophy and the beginnings of Medieval philosophy (often forcefully, as under Justinian I), which was dominated by the three Abrahamic traditions: Jewish philosophy, Christian philosophy, and early Islamic philosophy. 250 BC), a student of Herophilos, a new medical sect emerged, the Empiric school, which was based on strict observation and rejected unseen causes of the Dogmatic school.  Under the Hellenistic kingdoms, Judea was ruled by the hereditary office of the High Priest of Israel as a Hellenistic vassal. 'The Hellenic World ' is a term which refers to that period of ancient Greek history between 507 BCE (the date of the first democracy in Athens) and 323 BCE (the death of Alexander the Great). Under the leadership of an adventurer called Andriscus, Macedon rebelled against Roman rule in 149 BC: as a result it was directly annexed the following year and became a Roman province, the first of the Greek states to suffer this fate. Lysimachus was in turn defeated and killed in 280 BC. Athens. In 352 BC he annexed Thessaly and Magnesia. The Hellenistic period in Ancient Greece (323–146 BC) was the time period between the death of Alexander the Great when the generals of Alexander created their own empires and the Roman conquest of mainland Greece.. During this era: Greek culture, art and power expanded all over the Eastern Mediterranean (including Anatolia, Egypt, the Levant and the Balkans). Notice the florals on the bull capital from Rampurva, and the style of the horse on the Sarnath capital, now the emblem of the Republic of India.". The Hellenistic period saw the rise of New Comedy, Alexandrian poetry, the Septuagint and the philosophies of Stoicism, Epicureanism, and Pyrrhonism.  Greek temples built during the Hellenistic period were generally larger than classical ones, such as the temple of Artemis at Ephesus, the temple of Artemis at Sardis, and the temple of Apollo at Didyma (rebuilt by Seleucus in 300 BC). The Macedonian throne then passed to Demetrius's son Antigonus II, who also defeated an invasion of the Greek lands by the Gauls, who at this time were living in the Balkans. The Hellenistic period is a time of great development for the artistic invention of mosaics, as well as the prosperity of the Greek people. Some fields Hellenistic culture thus represents a fusion of the dynasty took the name Ptolemy depopulated and.! 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